Clear, concise and honest questions

A good multiple choice question attempts to honestly quiz a learners knowledge.

It does NOT attempt to confuse or trick the learner.
For example this question is not  clear, concise or honest:

The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia is divided into the executive branch, the legislative branch, and the judicial branch. Who is the representative of the Australian Head of State?

There’s a bunch of extraneous information before the actual question that attempts to confuse the learner, assessing their ability to pay attention more than their knowledge of the subject. 
A better version of this question would be simply:

Who is the representative of the Australian Head of State?


Sometimes, even when the intent of the question is honest, it can still become confusing because the author does a bunch of explaining before they get to the actual question. 
For example:

The Queen of England is the legal Australian Head of State. But she’s represented by a specific individual for actual governance. Who is the representative of the the Australian Head of State?

All that explaining should be left for the question’s explanation! It’s okay for a learner to encounter a question that they have no frame of reference for. Not knowing an answer or getting an answer wrong leaves them open to learning when they get to the explanation.
A better version of this question would be simply:

Who is the representative of the the Australian Head of State?

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